From Smilies to Emoticons ;-)

The National Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide in April 1857 documented the use of the number 73 in Morse code to express “love and kisses” (later reduced to the more formal “best regards”). Dodge’s Manual in 1908 documented the reintroduction of “love and kisses” as the number 88. Gajadhar and Green comment that both Morse code abbreviations are more succinct than modern abbreviations such as LOL.[1][2] Typographical emoticons were published in 1881 by the U.S. satirical magazine Puck. In 1912 Ambrose Bierce proposed “an improvement in punctuation β€” the snigger point, or note of cachinnation: it is written thus \___/! and presents a smiling mouth. It is to be appended, with the full stop, [or exclamation mark as Bierce’s later example used] to every jocular or ironical sentence”.[3] Emoticons had already come into use in sci-fi fandom in the 1940s,[4] although there seems to have been a lapse in cultural continuity between the communities. An early instance of using text characters to represent a sideways smiling (and frowning) face occurred in an ad for the MGM movie Lili in the New York Herald Tribune, March 10, 1953, page 20, cols. 4-6. (See “Creation of πŸ™‚ and :-(” section below.) In 1963, the “smiley face”, a yellow button with two black dots representing eyes and an upturned thick curve representing a mouth, was created by freelance artist Harvey Ball. It was realized on order of a large insurance company as part of a campaign to bolster the morale of its employees and soon became a big hit. This smiley presumably inspired many later emoticons; the most basic graphic emoticon that depicts this is in fact a small, yellow, smiley face. In a New York Times interview in April 1969, Alden Whitman asked writer Vladimir Nabokov: “How do you rank yourself among writers (living) and of the immediate past?” Nabokov answered: “I often think there should exist a special typographical sign for a smile β€” some sort of concave mark, a supine round bracket, which I would now like to trace in reply to your question.” [5] Several Internet websites β€”such as BT’s Connected Earth[6]β€” assert that Kevin Mackenzie proposed -) as a joke-marker in April 1979, on a message board called MsgGroup. The idea was to indicate tongue-in-cheek β€” the hyphen represented a tongue, not a nose. Others used πŸ™‚ for tongue-in-cheek, with the colon representing teeth. Also used was -:) to indicate sticking out your tongue, in derision or anger. Although similar to a sideways smiling face, the intended interpretation was different and this does not appear to have inspired the later smileys. Creation of πŸ™‚ and 😦 The creator of the original ASCII emoticons πŸ™‚ and :(, with a specific suggestion that they be used to express emotion, was Scott Fahlman;[7] the text of his original proposal, posted to the Carnegie Mellon University computer science general board on 19 September 1982 (11:44), was considered lost for a long time. It was however recovered twenty years later by Jeff Baird, from old backup tapes.[8] 19-Sep-82 11:44 Scott E Fahlman πŸ™‚ From: Scott E Fahlman I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers: πŸ™‚ Read it sideways. Actually, it is probably more economical to mark things that are NOT jokes – given current trends.For this, use 😦 Graphical replacement In Web forums and instant messengers, text emoticons are often automatically replaced with small corresponding images, which came to be called emoticons as well. Similarly, in some versions of Microsoft Word, the Auto Correct feature replaces basic smileys such as πŸ™‚ and 😦 with a single smiley-like character. Originally, these image emoticons were fairly simple and replaced only the most straightforward and common character sequences, but over time they became so complex that the more specialized emoticons are often input using a menu or popup windows, sometimes listing hundreds of items. Some of these graphical emoticons do not actually represent faces or emotions; for example, an “emoticon” showing a guitar might be used to represent music. Further, some instant messaging software is designed to play a sound upon receiving certain emoticons. An August 2004 issue of the Risks Digest (comp.risks on USENET) pointed out a problem with such features which are not under the sender’s control: It’s hard to know in advance what character-strings will be parsed into what kind of unintended image. A colleague was discussing his 401(k) plan with his boss, who happens to be female, via instant messaging. He discovered, to his horror, that the boss’s instant-messaging client was rendering the “(k)” as a big pair of red smoochy lips.[9] Emoticons are also commonly used in online computer games. The most common type of emoticon is the β€œsmiley β€œ which is simply a cartoon-looking face showing a smile. This has evolved into a variety of different facial expressions including frowns, angry grimaces, blushing, crying, looks of surprise and thousands more. Emoticons have also expanded beyond simple cartoon facial expressions to a variety of still or moving images, including words, character actions, and images.[10]

Icon Meaning Icon Meaning
πŸ™‚ classic smile with nose :’-) happy crying (generally associated with mockery)
😦 classic sad with nose |-O yawn
πŸ™‚ classic smile without nose πŸ˜€ laughter (originally ‘Big smile’, often used as that as well)
😦 classic sad without nose %-( or
:-S
confused
8) smiley with glasses without nose (or ‘Big eyes’ smile) =) ‘smiley-face’ eyes without nose
:-B buck-tooth B-) Batman / smiley with glasses
:-# with braces T.T crying, blinking
Asleep :-@ scream
>:3 A lion, or an evil smile :@ what??? (seriously?)
😐 indifferent :-0 surprised
>O “Ouch” :0] smiling
;0] winking and smiling at same time πŸ˜‰ winking smile with nose
;0 winking with open mouth πŸ˜‰ winking smile without nose
(:-D gossip, blabbermouth `:-) one eyebrow raised
8D Awesome πŸ˜› tongue sticking out (silly, or feeling lousy)
:-& tongue tied O:-) I’m an angel
c^:3 Left Mouse :-X My lips are sealed, or “mum.”
~:> chicken :-K Fangs sticking out.
x-( Angry, bummed out =0 surprised
:-* Kiss XD or xD Bubbly; happy; laughing hysterically
;:^)B> Beard with buck teeth and nose: (::[]::) bandaid; offering help or support
O.O or o.o or o_o or O_O Shocked O.o or o.O or o_O or O_o Shocked and skeptical
._. Sad, shy. Also used to show depression. A semicolon may be added ._.; to increase the portrayal of depression. ❀ A heart, or ‘I love you’, or a hug (arms and encircling hands). Also a bouquet of flowers, or occasionally, ice cream.
</3 A broken heart. :] Square-faced smile.
8I Not happy or sad. πŸ˜€ Big, potentially goofy smile.
>8V-()< A duck :-$ Grillz‘ or money mouth. (Being greedy for money)
=3 Used to show happiness. 3 shows pouting of the lips in an amused way. (Alternative –Β :3) <|:) wearing a (tin-foil) hat
<>< Ichthys (Christian symbol), Fish >_<* or ><* or >.< DOH!/ Angry/frustrated face, also used to show embarrassment
<@:) dunce with hat and curly hair <_< or >_> Sneer to left or Sneer to right; has also been used in succession to demonstrate nervous back and forth glances; also used for surprise and shock.
(-_-) A bored face Oo Interested, the equivalent of raising an eyebrow
(-.-) or -.- or =.= The showing of annoyance. Usually used in replying to a stupid question. Meanwhile more often used to express irony (often relating to an ironical statement). >:D Evil grin
-.-‘ Known as the “anime sweatdrop.” It is used when asked a stupid question, similar to (-.-). e.e Used to show great anger, similar to an evil glare.
E.E This smiley can be seen as a joke. It has no real meaning. -.-* “Anime Anger-Twitch.” Derived from anime cartoons where the temple swells when angered. Used to show anger and aggravation.
-.O Used to show disbelief. A glare with one eye closed and another open. =] Derived from the classic happy smile. Instead of a parenthesis, a bracket is used, and the dash is dropped. Used to show happiness.
:[ Derived from the classic sad smile. Parenthesis is replaced by a bracket, and dash is dropped. Used to show sadness. Sometimes seen as =[. ;] Derived from the classic wink smile. Parenthesis is replaced by a bracket, and the dash is dropped. Used to symbolize a wink. Sometimes seen as =[.
:'[ Derived from the classic cry smile. Used to show tears and sadness. Sometimes seen as ='[. :\ Sad frown, or used to show depression, (could also mean ‘not entirely satisfied with…’) sometimes seen as =\, =/, 8\, 8/, orΒ :/.
:’\ Shows great depression, sometimes seen as =’\, =’/, orΒ :’/. ;D Used to show a broad smile while winking.
*o* “Shiny.” Symbolizes gawking, or a blank stare. :d “Dribble.” Guy dribbling. Might represent astonishment.
KD Big grin with tightly closed eyes (almost crying from laughter) ~.^ Angry and skeptical; “what did/do you mean by that?”; Alternative wink
D: Total fear :3= Walrus
c(Q_\\) Hurt ())–,’— or
@–>–
Rose/Flower
=^.^= or =^..^= or βˆ‘:3 Cat Β±_Β± Tiredness
>8O Extremely angry Β¬_Β¬ Glaring
^^ Eyebrows raised. Used to add levity or playfulness to a preceding statement. Can also be used standalone to express a light chuckle or non-verbal acknowledgment. Also seen as ^.^ or ^-^ QQ Usually used in gaming for crying/sobbing
/)_- Face palm; slapping hand against forehead, for when expressing frustration or disbelief in words just isn’t enough /).(\ covering face in embarrassment. Often used when annoyed or embarrassed.
(<(^.^)>) or
@-_-@ or
:(|)
Monkey m(o.o)m To act nosey or be peeking at something you shouldn’t be peeking at
\o/ A variant of LOL, also depict a man cheering (^v^)or (^<^) Bird
\o or o/ Person waving, the one is often the reply to the other. *\o/* Cheerleader
\m/ Rock on, it looks the metal rock on that you do with your hand p_o or o_q Monocle face
<3)~ mouse ._____. Whale face
(O).(O) Tired :C Frown of despair, also for extreme disappointment
Q(-_=Q Stick ’em up, Put ’em up, have at you, Adriaaaaaan, etc. /o/ and .o. and \o\ Swaying back and forth, also doing the “Numa Numa” dance.
>:U Angry yelling smiley. :u A less angry shouting smiley.
=:3 A bunny. \_/(><)\_/ rock on
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